Self-sustaining smouldering reactors at different scales are utilized to treat waste under a myriad of conditions.

The reactors have a heating element to start the ignition and an air diffuser to ensure uniformity in the airflow. A series of thermocuoples connected to a data logger and a PC gives information about the process. Gas samples can be collected, after condensation of water and other liquid products, for further analysis.

These systems have been used for the treatment of human faeces, agricultural waste, biomass, wastewater sludge, biosolids, green waste and soil remediation.

Lab-scale reactor

Pilot-scale reactor